About FMD Disease of Animal


Introduction- Foot-and-mouth disease is one of the world’s most economically important viral diseases of livestock (Cow, Buffalo, Goat Sheep, pig). The infection results in vesicular lesions in and around the mouth and on the feet, resulting in the reluctance of an animal to eat or move. Confirmation of the infection requires laboratory analysis, usually involving real time RT-PCR, and serotyping is achieved using antigen ELISA test. Inactivated virus vaccines are available.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of cattle and swine. It also affects sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hooved ruminants. FMD is not recognized as a zoonotic disease.

Cause :-
The disease is caused by a virus of which there are seven ‘types’ A, O, C, Asia 1, and SAT (Southern African Territories) 1, 2, and 3. each producing the same symptoms, and distinguishable only in the laboratory.

Symptoms :-
1. Fever
2. Vesiclus in the mouth and on feet
3. Drop in milk production
4. Weight loss
5. Loss of appetite
6. Quivering lips and frothing of mouth
7. Cows may develop blisters on teats
8. Lameness

Treatment :-
There is no specific treatment for FMD. The conventional method of treating infected animals mainly involves the use of antibiotics, flunixin meglumine and mild disinfectants Treatment is not given. Affected animals will recover. However because of the loss of production and the infectious state of the disease, infected animals are usually culled from herd.

Vaccination :-
Vaccination can be used to reduce the spread of FMD or protect specific animals. Vaccines are also used in endemic regions to protect animals from clinical disease. FMDV vaccines must closely match the serotype and strain of the infecting strain. Vaccination with one serotype does not protect the animal against other serotypes, and may not protect the animal completely or at all from other strains of the same serotype. Currently, there is no universal FMD vaccine.

Economic effect Due to FMD Disease :-
In FMD milk production greatly reduces than in normal condition. The below graphs show the milk production in 1st month in which the cow has suffered from FMD. The milk production generally decreases in 2nd and 3rd week period. The milk production generally increases after 4th week of period. In my research study the milk loss was found to be average of 34% with maximum loss of 39% and minimum loss of 24%. However the animal could not give the normal milk production. The decrease in milk production is due to stress condition in the body of animal.

Mr. Brahmanand Bairwa, Assistant Professor, School of Agricultural Sciences, Career Point University, Kota

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