Applications of IOT in Agriculture


Introduction-
When a notion pops up in our mind, that a technology which proved to be a boon for mankind, it will be the Internet of Things.

The IOT in simple terms is “It’s a network of Objects connected with the internet which are able to gather and exchange data”.

An Internet of Things system contains sensors or devices which communicate to the cloud using some sort of path or internet. At once the data has been uploaded in the cloud, the software starts to process it and then it goes for the action phase like sending a message of alert to the user automatically just by adjusting the devices or sensors without manually anything done by the user.

Why Smart Farming is needed?
When someone asks you a question, can you tell me the areas where the IOT has been using enormously? Then you must answer them as “Smart Watch, Home Automation, and Driverless Cars etc.” But the area where the IoT impacted the most is in Agriculture. According to the survey, the World’s population will be estimated around 10 billion by 2050. So, to consume the needs of such a mammoth people it will be tough to quench the hunger of every person therefore we need to look forward in the technology specially in Agriculture, weather condition, Abrupt change in Climate and Environment influence, so to overcome with such issues, IoT has set its benchmark as a Game Changer and helped in providing basic need of food.
Global Implications:-If we talk about developing countries at least 500 million small farms produce 81% of the food consumed. Where precision agriculture is gradually becoming more widely accessible around the world. Now, if the farmer wants to calculate the soil health or plant health, then some hand held devices are precisely used for best fertilizers. As per survey, it’s estimated that by 2026 the agriculture market will get raised to about 4.8 billion US dollars globally, earlier it was 1.9 billion US Dollars in 2019.

Solving the problems faced by farmers using Smart farming, precision agriculture not only increases food demands even increases the life costing of the crofters as well.

Few benefits offered by Smart Farming are:

  • It is used in lowering fuel and consumption of energy by reducing CO2 emission.
  • It reduces NO2 (Nitrous Oxide) emits from soil by optimizing nitrogen fertilizers.
  • Reduces chemical usage of using precise fertilizer and pest control.
  • It eliminates nutrient depletion through monitoring and maintaining soil health.
  • It controls soil compaction by minimal device traffic.
  • Maximizes water usage efficiently.

Applications of IoT in Agriculture
Precision Farming
When it comes to increasing livestock and crops by the farmers who used to practice controlled and accurate farming that can be done by using precision farming. In this type of farming the main character is IT and numerous sensors, control systems, robotics, autonomous vehicles etc.
As we moved towards high speed internet, mobile gadgets and reliable, low cost satellites by the companies are some key techs featuring the precise agriculture trend.
This type of agriculture is one of the most prominent apps of Internet of Things especially in agriculture stream and various org. are giving their best to enhance this technology around the globe. Crop Metrics is a precise agriculture org especially focuses on modern solutions while simultaneously perfecting in irrigation as well.

Agricultural Drones
As the time passes on so do the technology and if we talk about drones in agriculture it’s a perfect example of change in agriculture. These days only agriculture is the field where drones are widely used and accepted, because drones enhance the variety of agricultural practices. There are basically 2 ways of drones being used one is ground based and another aerial based drones which are meant for crop health assessment, irrigation, crop monitoring, spraying, planting, soil and field analysis.
There are other benefits also of using drones which includes crop health imaging, integrated GIS mapping, ease of use, saves time, and increases yields. With proper planning and strategy based on real data collection and processing, drone technology will be very beneficial in high tech makeover especially in agriculture.

Livestock Monitoring
Now, if we talk about large farm owners who can collect the data regarding the location, well-being and health of the cattle then IoT can do this more flexibly and easily. All this is done to figure out the sick animals present in the herd so that other animal won’t get sick and disease won’t be getting spread in other animals due to which labor cost gets lower and ranchers can identify the exact location of their cattle with the help of IoT.

Aid Pest Management

When it comes to inadequate pest management which sounds disappointing, unprofitable growing seasons. But when the peasants do check for pest infestations by themselves which causes them a lot of time, many issues may get unnoticed as it’s been done manually which causes huge loss.
When we need real time information, IoT sensors provide it about crops health and pests. And if we talk about low resolution image sensors that will be used in large areas. These images are taken by the camera which we can’t see by naked eye.
In nutshell, there are high resolution sensors which are used to capture the light energy emitted by a plant, also called as spectral signature. A peasant generally pays more attention to the reason of infestations are more likely when deciding to implement IoT devices for pest control.

Mr. Rohit Maheshwari & Mr. Mohnish Vidyarthi, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Career Point University, Kota

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