Fundamental Teaching Methods

Introduction- A teaching method basically refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used by teachers for classroom instruction. We can organize teaching theories into four major categories. The teacher-centered approach versus. the student-centered approach and high-tech versus low-tech approaches to learning. The nature of the learner and the subject matter to be taught determines these strategies.

Teaching Methods
Teacher-Centered Approach to Learning
In teacher centered approach the teacher is actively involved in teaching while the learners are in a passive, receptive mode and the teacher teaches through lectures and direct instruction. Their major aim is to measure the results through examination and assessment.

Student-Centered Approach to Learning
Teachers is an authority figure, but functions more as a facilitator or guide, as students play active part in the learning process. In this method, students are constantly assessed on activities such as student portfolios, class participation and group projects.

High-Tech Approach to Learning
In the high-tech approach to learning, teachers utilize different types of technology to assist students in their classroom learning. Many devices such as laptops, mobile phones and tablets are used to share information. Technology plays major role in today’s classrooms.

Low-Tech Approach to Learning
As we are well aware of the adverse effects of technology so many teachers believe that a low-tech approach enables them to proceed along with different types of learners.

Teacher Centered Teaching Methods
Direct Instruction (Low Tech)
Under the direct instruction model teachers convey knowledge to their students through lectures and scripted lesson plans, without factoring in student preferences or opportunities for hands-on or other types of learning.

Kinesthetic Learning (Low Tech)
In the kinesthetic learning model, students perform hands-on physical activities, in spite of listening to lectures or watching demonstrations.

Flipped Classrooms (High Tech)
Above picture depicts the situation of flipped classroom in which students watch or read their lessons on computers at home and their assignments and problem-solving exercises are done in the class.

Student Centered Teaching Methods
Differentiated Instruction (Low Tech)
Differentiated instruction is the practice of developing an understanding of how each student learns best, and then preparing instruction to meet students’ individual needs. It is inspired by the 1975 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This basically means Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students with specific needs.

Inquiry-Based Learning (High Tech)
Teachers offer support and guidance to the students while working on projects or actively participating in the process of learning. Students participate in different projects as per the interest, develop their own questions and conduct research and then demonstrate the results of their work through self-made videos, web pages or formal presentations.

Game-Based Learning (High Tech)
As students love games, game-based learning is really preferred. It requires students to be problem solvers as they work on quests to accomplish a specific goal. This approach blends targeted learning objectives with the fun of earning points. Additional time and effort is required on the part of teacher to plan this type of activity. Many software help students in maximizing the educational value they receive from within the gamified learning environment.

Personalized Learning (High Tech)
In personalized learning, teachers encourage students to follow personalized, self-directed learning plans that are inspired by their specific interests and skills. Since assessment is also prepared as per the individual levels, students can advance at their own pace, moving forward or spending extra time as needed. Teachers offer some traditional instructions as well as online material to review the progress of the students.

Blended Learning and Universal Design for Learning
Blended Learning
Teachers who wish to introduce flexibility into their classroom prefer Blended learning. Basis of this method is technology, some instructions take place online and some in the classroom via a more traditional approach. Blended learning develops strategies to teach to every learner, by building flexibility and choice into the curriculum, along with that it understands each student’s learning style.

Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
UDL refers to student-centered learning and the “multiple intelligences theory,” which says that different learners are supposed to learn most effectively in different ways. These “intelligences” include visual-spatial, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, linguistic, musical, etc. In other words UDL lays emphasis on the idea of teaching to every student in the general education classroom and creating community and building knowledge through multiple means.

Expeditionary Learning (Low Tech)
Expeditionary learning is based on the idea that there is considerable educational value in getting students out of the classroom into the real world. Examples include trips to historical places, to know about the historical background of a place. Technology can be used to augment such expeditions, but the primary focus is proceeding towards real life learning experiences.

Dr. Abhishek Srivastava, Associate Professor (School Of Education) & Dr. Anshuraj Purohit, Professor(Department of English, Career Point University, Kota

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