Introduction- Agriculture is the science of raising of plant life. It deals with various aspects viz., cultivation, production, post- harvest handling and distribution of products. With the advent of modernization in India, the agriculture sector also get modified due to new production technology. Agriculture is the backbone of Indian Economy and contributes approximately eighteen percent to Gross Domestic Product. Horticulture plays major role in agriculture which has contribution of twenty five percent in Gross Value Output. Horticulture deals with the study of fruits, vegetables, flowers, ornamentals plants, spices and condiments. Horticulture involves various methods starts from nursery raising to the end of finished products and its further transportation, handling and storage.
We will take a look in this blog at the most innovative Hi Tech Horticulture Techniques and emerging technology in the agriculture sector, and explore their impact on the farmers.
1. Need of Hi Tech Horticulture :-
Horticulture deals with the study of fruits, vegetables, flowers, ornamental plants, spices and condiments. Horticulture involves various methods starting from nursery raising to the end of finished products and its further transportation, handling and storage.
Hi-Tech Horticulture is one of the major techniques which are modern, less environment dependent and capital intensive. It involves the efficient use of water, energy, input and resources. There is a huge need for Hi-Tech Horticulture in India by taking various things into consideration i.e., sudden climate change, increase population, decrease land availability, increasing food contamination due to excessive usage of pesticides and decreasing food quality.
2. In-vitro conservation :-
In-vitro conservation is one of the most important techniques used for maintaining genetic diversity of indigenous plant. In- vitro preservation of tissues or seedlings are done now a days. Genetically modified crops are produced by genetic engineering and biotechnology. Some of the basic examples are seen in Arctic apple which resist browning even after being cut, rainbow papaya resistant to ring spot disease, spicy tomato by using crispr techniques.
3. Cryopreservation :-
Cryopreservation is done in the presence of liquid nitrogen at -196 degree Celsius. One of the most important example is Cryopreservation of banana cv. Grand Naine.
4. Protected Cultivation :-
Protected Cultivation is a modern technique in which cultivation of plants under partially controlled conditions which promotes the off-season cultivation of plants. Various techniques are involved like polyhouses, low tunnel plastics, Green house etc. Mulching is of great significance in conserving soil moisture, creating micro climate and in controlling weeds. Integrated Pest and Nutrient Management techniques are also used in India now days for efficient nutrient and pest management. Nutrients are managed by using manures, vermin-compost, crop rotation etc. Pest is managed by using physical, chemical, biological, cultural and prevention methods.
5. Micro Irrigation :-
Micro irrigation is the technique used to create micro-climate in the plants. Most important technique of micro-irrigation is Drip irrigation. Drip irrigation is the method of irrigation in which water is directly applied to the rhizosphere of the plants due to which forty percent water and fertilizer are saved. Hydroponics is the technique of soil less culture in which plants are grown in nutrient solution. The plants produced through hydroponics are free from disease, insect and pest infestation. High Density Planting is the vital importance in proper utilization of land. It is used to increase the plant population per unit area to overcome low productivity and long gestation period for early returns. Hi-Tech Mechanizing and Post- Harvest Handling are used for proper transportation, storage and handling of the fruits, vegetables, flowers etc.
For students that love technology, we have the potential to install sensors that quantify plant-related data and use computing technology to visualize plant and crop performance.
For students that love media and photography, there are endless ways to showcase the beauty of plants in the urban growing environment.
For future chefs that access to locally-produced, high-quality plant products including not just traditional greens but also edible parts and flowers can open up innovation and ideas for amazing food experiences in their futures.
The convergence of new ideas and advances from overseas into India makes horticulture ready for a bright future. The way we produce food, greens and plant products will continue to be influenced by horticultural technologies, apps and integration with cloud computing.
Ms. Asha Nama, Assistant Professor, School of Agricultural Sciences, Career Point University, Kota