Introduction- Drainage is broadly known as ‘land drainage’, ‘agricultural drainage’ and ‘field drainage’. Drainage (land drainage) is necessary not only for the removal of excess water from the surface or sub-surface but also for removing salts from the soil, a definition of drainage has been given by the constitution of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID, 1979) as follows: “Land drainage is the removal of excess surface and subsurface water from the land to enhance crop growth, including the removal of soluble salts from the soil”. The above definition of land drainage (or drainage) is well known and is used worldwide.
Demand of drainage increases in low level area when the kharif season (rainy season) begins. Water drainage is being adopted in India and all over the world and it is also very effective.
Drainage problem in India:-
Water logging and salt accumulation are major problems in sustainable agricultural production in many countries, especially in developing countries. In India, the problem of drainage is acute in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, Usually water logging is the condition of an agricultural land when the root zone becomes saturated due to high rain or intensive irrigation. In some important natural causes is high rainfall during the rainy season, unfavorable topography, high evaporation during long dry periods and soil salts.
Objectives of Drainage System:-
In few of crops (rice and jute) need more standing water on the field at certain stages of their growth Therefore, excess water and high salt concentration at the root zone or at the land surface area do not allow to roots of plant for function normally. As a result, the plant growth and yield are adversely affected in flooding condition. In the maximum cases of water-logging and salinity, the seeds may not germinate, and the plants may wilt permanently. The result of poor drainage is a loss of agricultural production.
Need of Drainage System:-
Agriculture is one of the leading sectors in India which provides maximum raw material and employment and to complete the cultivation. For the successful production of the crop we need drainage in the kharif season.
The need for drainage from the land is due to some special circumstances which are as follows:
1. Due to hard layer in field, water is not able to go down into the ground.
2. Drainage becomes necessary to remove excess deposits from soil.
3. It is necessary because the process of soaking water in the loamy soil & black soil is quite slow.
4. Less water required crops cannot survive in water for long duration.
Importance of Drainage :-
Drainage plays very important role in kharif season and heavy irrigation. It also ensures that the soil is properly aerated. Drainage helps to reduce the risk of soil slippage on hill slopes. With help of drainage water can be collected and it can be saved for future use during periods of dry weather.
Other important of Drainage are:-
- When excess water remove from an area air circulation increases in the soil.
- By drainage harmful salts flow away from the ground. In this way, the wastelands can improve and can be protected from becoming disorderly.
- After drainage, the land soon becomes capable for agricultural work, in which the crop can be sown as soon as possible.
- Physical state of the soil improves, thus increasing production.
- Due to the soil aeration stability, the respiratory activity of roots is not done properly. Hence, plants die.
Mr. Ravi SG Mahour, Assistant Professor, School of Agricultural Sciences, Career Point University, Kota