Permaculture: The Sustainable Ways of Agriculture

Introduction- The term permaculture combines the words permanent and culture, or permanent and agriculture. Bill Mollison and David Holmgren developed the philosophy behind permaculture about thirty years ago in Australia. During his, a few years as a wildlife biologist Bill Mollison had witnessed first-hand the destruction that humans are causing in natural systems, but he also had a chance to observe how these natural ecosystems work, and what keeps them in balance. Permaculture may be a holistic design framework that comes with sustainable agricultural practices, potentially improving livelihoods. A permaculture is an approach that could contribute to the sustainability of social and ecological systems. While permaculture is transdisciplinary in its nature, it emphasizes ecosystem health.

Why permaculture : Modern agricultural production is being intensified worldwide and is usually supported by monoculture cultivation and therefore, the use of chemical pesticides. In Guatemala, the access to land suitable for farming is restricted and lots of people struggle with land acquisition malnutrition, and discrimination. The concept is predicated on lore that has been developed and practiced over time by indigenous people. What is permaculture: it is a practical method of developing ecologically harmonious, efficient, and productive systems, which will be employed by anyone, anywhere, or Permaculture is an innovative framework for creating sustainable ways of living. By thinking carefully about the way we use of our resources food, energy, shelter, and other material and non-material needs. It is possible to urge far more out of life by using less.

We can have more productive for effort, reaping rewards for our surroundings and ourselves, for now, and for generations to return Permaculture may be a term wont to describe an intentional system of agriculture and settlement that aims to reflect the interrelationships and sustainability of natural ecosystems. Permaculture often seen in contrast to intensive agriculture, which eventually leaves land unfit for farming, gradually reducing the quantity of land suitable for human habitation. It draws from several disciplines including organic farming, agroforestry, integrated farming, sustainable development, and applied ecology.

Principles of permaculture
1. Observe and Interact : Good design depends on a free and harmonious relationship between natures and people during which careful observation and thoughtful interaction provide the design inspiration, repertoire, and patterns. Catch and Store Energy: Some (appropriate) sources of energy include: Sun, wind, and runoff water flows, wasted resources from agricultural, industrial, and commercial activities The most important storage of future value include: Fertile soil with high humus content, perennial vegetation systems, especially trees, water bodies, passive solar buildings.
2. Obtain a Yield : This principle reminds us that we should always design any system to supply for self-reliance in the least levels (including ourselves), by using captured and stored energy effectively to take care of the system and capture more energy. More broadly, flexibility and creativity find new ways to get a yield are going to be critical within the transition from energy growth to descent.
3. Apply Self-Regulation and Accept Feedback : This principle deals with self-regulatory aspects of Permaculture design that limits or discourage inappropriate growth or behavior. With a much better understanding of how positive and negative feedback add nature, we will design more self-regulating systems, thus reducing the work involved in repeated and harsh corrective management.
4. Use and Value Renewable Resources and Services : Renewable resources are those that are renewed and replaced by natural processes over reasonable periods, without the need for major non-renewable inputs. In the language of business, renewable resources should be seen as our sources of income, while non-renewable resources are often thought of as capital assets. Spending our capital assets for day-to-day living is unsustainable in anyone’s language. Permaculture design should aim to form the simplest use of renewable natural resources to manage and maintain yield, albeit some use of non-renewable resources is required in establishing systems.
5. Produce No Waste : This principle brings together traditional values of frugality and appearance after material goods, the fashionable concern about pollution, and thus the more radical perspective that sees wastes as resources and opportunities. The earthworm may be a suitable icon for this principle because it lives by consuming plant litter (wastes), which it converts into humus that improves the soil environment for itself, for soil microorganisms, and the plants. Design from Patterns to Details: The spider on its web with its concentric and radial design shows a transparent pattern albeit the small print always varies. This icon evokes zone and sector site planning the simplest known and maybe most generally applied aspect of permaculture design.
6. Integrate instead of Segregate : In every aspect of nature, from the within workings of organisms to whole ecosystems, we discover the connections between things are as important because of the things themselves. Thus, the aim of a functional and self-regulating design is to put elements in such how that everyone serves the requirements and accepts the products of the others.
7. Use Small and Slow Solutions : Systems should be designed to perform functions at the littlest scale that is practical and energy-efficient for that function. Human scale and capacity should be the yardstick for a humane, democratic, and sustainable society. Whenever we do anything of self-reliant nature growing food, fixing a broken appliance, maintaining our health, we are making very powerful and effective use of this principle. Whenever we purchases from small, local businesses or contribute to the area people and environmental issues, we also are applying this principle.
8. Use and Value Diversity : the good diversity of forms, functions, and interactions in nature and humanity are the sources of evolved systemic complexity. The role and value of diversity in nature, culture, and Permaculture is itself complex, dynamic, and sometimes apparently contradictory. Diversity needs to be seen because of the balance and tension in nature between variety and possibility on the one hand, and productivity and power on the other.
9. Use Edges and Value the Marginal : This principle works from the premise that the worth and contribution of edges and therefore, the marginal and invisible aspects of any system should not only be recognized and conserved but that expansion of those aspects can increase system productivity and stability. For example, increasing the sting between field and pond can increase the productivity of both.

Benefits of Permaculture Farming:
1. Zero-cost water: Permaculture gardening and farming largely depend on rainwater or in some cases, even house wastewater. These zero-cost water sources are tapped by earthworks like swales or canals. Permaculture also offers design solutions that will recharge groundwater.
2. More with less: A permaculture site uses fewer resources and produces optimum yields. This is made possible by the natural resilience of a permaculture site. For instance, soil fertility is taken care of by intercropping and livestock manure rather than costly fertilizers. Similarly, water needs are met by natural earthworks, and pests are kept cornered by nurturing their natural predators. This one advantage of permaculture makes it extremely useful for struggling farmers.
3. Saves fossil fuels: Traditional farming uses fossil fuels for irrigation and the manufacture of inorganic fertilizers. However, permaculture farming involves zero usage of fossil fuels, making it especially useful during depleting fossil fuels. In addition, no use of fossil fuels translates to no pollution.
4. Saves biodiversity: One of the benefits of permaculture is that it saves biodiversity. In traditional monoculture fields, just one plant is grown restricting diversity. Whereas during a permaculture site not only different sorts of plants are grown there is a variety of insects population that lives harmoniously.

Mr. Rohitashv Nagar, Assistant Professor, School of Agricultural Sciences, Career Point University, Kota

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