Introduction- Steroids are used for many Purposes .They are short for corticosteroid drugs. It is a substance which is used to reduce swelling & inflammation quickly. These are copies of cortisol and aldosterone. They belong to class of lipid. They have a distinguished molecular ring structure called “The cyclopentano perhydro phenanthrene ring”. There is a wide range of steroids form such as vit D, digitalis ,sterol and bile acid. Some steroids are also control metabolic system of human body.
How steroids work :-They are synthetic Form of natural testosterone hormone. They work as a supplement when microtears are produced in the muscle fibers by weight lifting. The natural repair system of human body repair the tear & overcompensate it by adding bigger cell to create stronger fibers, this process called ‘Hypertrophy’. Anabolic steroids travel through blood stream and work their way into muscle tissue.
Uses Of Steroids:-
1. Replacement Therapy:- Acute adrenal in sufficiency, chronic adrenal in sufficiency, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
2. Pharmco Therapy:- Arthritis, collagen disease, severe allergic reaction , auto immune disease, bronchial asthma, other lungs disease, infective disease, eye disease, skin disease, intestinal disease, cerebral edema ,organ transplantation, septic shock.
Uses Of Steroids For Treatment Of Covid Patient:-
Talking about Covid treatment we have been hearing a lot of about steroids. The majority of patients with mild symptoms and some even in moderate category will not need steroids. If the oxygen level are falling & saturation below 90% and there is downward trend of disease along with other complication including severe involvement of lungs & throat ,high grade fever for a week or over then steroids might be prescribe.
Adverse Effect Of Steroids:-
Mineralo corticoid :- Na+2 and water retention edema, hypokalemia will rise the BP.
Gluco corticoid :- Hyper glycemia, muscle weakness ,peptic ulceration, osteoporosis, glaucoma, growth retardation (specially in children when given small dose for long time)
Foetal abnormalities:- Cleft palate and other defects are produced in animals but have not been encountered in clinical uses in pregnant women. The risk of abortion still birth is not increased but intra-utrine growth retardation can occur after prolong therapy.
ILL Effect Of Steroids In Covid Patients:- There are also pronounced side effects of treatment, one instance of this ‘Mucormycosis or Black Fungal’ which is affecting people recovering from Covid-19. So much so that the state of of Rajasthan has declared it is an ‘Epidemic’ & Maharashtra has reportedly said it will seek doses of antifungal drug ‘Amphotericin-B’. We saw Mucormycosis earlier in the first wave too but not in many cases. There are many cases in Maharashtra, in Gujarat even in Delhi.
It is typically a very rare fungal infection .It only cause s disease in people who are immuno compromise like cancer patients, transplant recipients, and specially if the have diabetes. Mucormycosis has a motility rate of more than 50% and the are 2 to 3 type .The most common is ‘Rhinocerebral’ which affect nose, sinuses and possibly the eye & brain.
Conclusion:- Since their discovery steroids have infiltrated nearly every branch of medicine & can be administered in nearly every root available. The effect of steroids use can carry widely and the full spectrum of side effect can be present even in patients taking low dose.
So practitioners must be aware that these drugs might exacerbated pre-existing conditions or present a new medical conditions , knowledge of the clinical implications of prescribing these agent is critical.
Ms. Summaiya Nagori, B. Pharma – IV Sem., School of Pharmacy, Career Point University, Kota