Introduction- All the researches and clinical trials have been shown the efficiency of COVID-19 Vaccines over the entire nation. These vaccines are highly adapted to protect individuals from Coronavirus. But now two major questions arise in our mind, Will these vaccines continue to provide sufficient immunity against the pandemic virus? And the second one is what are the benefits or success rates of these vaccines?
So for the very first question, I would like to say more study and research are required on both basic and applied aspects. For the second question, there are many factors and myths in our country and it is really very important to raise awareness among the major part of our population especially in our village areas.
I just want to take the example of my area here to explain the current scenario. I live in an area of the city, where people are not that much privileged and the area is too small as compared to the other areas of the city. Majority of the villagers are scared about some meaningless and irrelevant myths like- what is this? Virus it is nothing, the government is spreading false statements to spread fear in our community or what is the guarantee that we will survive after taking these vaccines. And a very stupid one is that it will going to affect our fertility rate!!!! Now if we want to explain things logically to them, they are not even ready to listen to anything from us and you will end up by a massive argument.
I personally feel that there is a strong need to spread awareness towards vaccination in a major part of our country, especially in rural India. On that note, I would like to share about the basic details of vaccines available in our country against Covid-19 in this blog. How many types of vaccines are there in India for COVID-19 and what are their effects on our body or what is their success rate?
COVAXIN : Covexin is an inactivated vaccine, which means that it is made up of attenuated coronaviruses, making it safe to be injected into the body. Bharat Biotech, a 24 year old vaccine maker with a portfolio of 16 vaccines and exports to 123 countries, used a sample of the coronavirus, isolated by National Institute of Virology, India. It works like an antigen-antibody System. The two doses are prescribed to give four weeks apart. The vaccine can be stored at 2˚C to 8˚C. On the basis of the preliminary data, the vaccine has reported to have an efficiency rate of 81%.
COVISHIELD : The Covishield is made from a weak version of a common cold virus (known as adenovirus) from chimpanzees. When the vaccine is injected into a patient, it promotes the immune system to start making antibodies and to attack on the coronavirus infection. The two doses are given between 4 and 12 weeks apart. It can be safely stored at temperatures of 2˚C to 8˚C. International clinical trials of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine showed that when people are given a half dose and then a full dose, effectiveness is 90%. However there is not enough clear data to prove the half-dose and full-dose idea. It includes some mild symptoms like, headache, fever, and body pain for the first 48 hours only. According to the report, Covishield is one of the two vaccines given Emergency Use Authorization in India, both in the first week of January this year. Covishield authorization was based on Phase second/third Vaxzevria protection data. Oxford/AstraZeneca have a technology transfer agreement with Serum Institute to develop the adenovirus vectored vaccine COVISHIELD.
SPUTNIK-V : It uses a cold-type virus, which is harmless, as a carrier to deliver a small fragment of the coronavirus into the body .This exposing allows virus’s genetic code to recognize the threat and learn to fight it off, without the risk of getting illness. After Vaccination, the body starts to produce antibodies. This means that the immune system is now adapted to fight coronavirus. Unlike other similar vaccines, the Sputnik uses two slightly different versions of the vaccine for the first and the second doses given 21 days apart. It can be stored at temperatures of 2˚C to 8˚C.
According to data Russia’s Service for Surveillance in Healthcare, the equivalent of the U.S. Food and Drug Admin2istration approved Sputnik V for use in August 2020.The Gamaleya Research Institute reported an impressive efficacy rate of 92% based on early analyses of Phase 3 data, close to the 95% rate reported by Pfizer/BioNTech and the 94.5% rate reported by Moderna.
CONCLUSION : We all are living in a nation and it is our moral responsibility to respect the decisions of our government. In my opinion it is really very important to understand for each and every person of our country that our country will only be able to develop physically and economically, when we will understand what is right and what is wrong for us and support our health workers, scientists and government in their initiation. We can also support them and help them by spreading awareness towards vaccination in this tough time.
Ms. Harshita Sharma, M.Sc. Previous, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Career Point University, Kota